Monday, December 28, 2009

The 1993 Suzuki RGV500 is from an era when Grand Prix machines were beautiful like few before or since

The 1993 Suzuki RGV500 is from an era when Grand Prix machines were beautiful like few before or since. It's also a touchstone to a golden age of fabulous fag sponsorship, wild highsides and day-glo cool, an era that gave us Schwantz versus Rainey, vast power versus scant control and Mick Doohan v Honda's nasty NSR500.

In outright terms, the Suzuki RGV wasn't the fastest thing on the grid. On the all-important Honkenheim speed trap leaderboard, 1993 saw this bike, Kevin Schwantz's, languishing in eighth, some way behind the ballistic, 320km/h Rothmans Hondas. But it's all relative. Blessed with, by 500cc two-stroke standards, a degree of user-friendliness thanks to its twin exhaust power valves, the Suzuki RGV's V4 was potent enough and, under Schwants's aggressive instruction, bagged five wins on the way to the title that year.

For the 1993 GP season Suzuki found consistency with the Suzuki RGV - race weekends were finally about fine-tunning the jetting and set-up rather than fixing big problems.

Using much of the 1992 bike helped - the bike's chassis and engine cases went largely unchanged.

The frame uses two spars of box-section aluminum to span the gap between the adjustable headstock and the machined-from-solid rear section at the swingarm pivot. According to Suzuki, its geometry was used on the first SRAD GSX-R750, the 1996 Suzuki 750T. The swingarm has a beauty that defies description and seems impossible for what is a lump of metal. The banana-shaped beast is also box-section aluminum and pivots on needle roller bearings.

When former Suzuki GP team manager Garry Taylor retired, the factory offered him a bike of his choice on permanent loan. The answer came quickly, 'It's the 1993 championship-winning bike and to my mind, it doesn't get much better that that,' says Taylor. 'The bike was in our old building for years, up on a plinth - this is exactly how it finished the '93 season. They got it running for the first time in years a few months ago and it it was just great to see the old girl running again, the noise really is something else.

By modern standards it's not very complicated. You don't need computers to get it started. The powerpack for the power valves was knackered and the gearbox oil had jellified. We always ran the bike on street Motul oil so we popped out for some of that and fitted fresh tyres, Michelin thought it might be wise. That really was it.

'To be honest, anything to do with Kevin has a special place for me, even if it hadn't been the championship-winning bike, I'd walk through fire for Kevin, he's just and extraordinary guy' Gary Taylor said.

The Suzuki RGV500 was Suzuki's entry in 500 cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing. It won its first 500 cc championship in 1993 in the hands of Kevin Schwantz, who beat both Wayne Rainey and Mick Doohan to the prize. This was the most successful period in the motorcycle's history. The Suzuki suited Schwantz's riding style, as he often pushed beyond the limit of the machine, which often lead to Schwantz crashing as often as he won.

The Suzuki was always slower than its opposition, as both the Yamaha and especially the Honda were much faster in a straight line; to compensate for this, Schwantz set the RGV up, so it would compensate in the braking zones, and in the corners, allowing the Suzuki to slipstream the machines in front. This style of riding was famously quoted by Schwantz stating that he would "See God, then brake".

Other riders failed to adapt their style to the Suzuki, talent such as: Doug Chandler and Alex Barros. However many did manage the Suzuki well such as Daryl Beattie who finished second overall in 1995 and Niall Mackenzie.

Kenny Roberts Jr was another who was successful on the RGV. After finishing second in 1999, Roberts became Suzuki's last 500 cc World Champion in 2000.

Specifications Suzuki RGV500-Gamma XR-B1 (2001)
Engine Type:    Two-stroke, water cooled V4
Bore/Stroke:    54.0 × 54.5 mm
Displacement:    499.3cc
Maximum Power:    more than 185PS at 12,500rpm
Inlet System:    Crankcase Reed Valve
Carburettor:    Keihin
Exhaust System:    AETC (Automatic Exhaust Timing Control)
Piston:    Cast, one piston ring
Cylinder:    Aluminium, Suzuki 'SCEM' plating
Lubrication System:    Fuel/Oil premix
Ignition System:    CDI
Sparking Plugs:    NGK
Clutch:    Dry multi-plate
Transmission:    six-speed constant mesh
Drive Chain:    RK520 or DID 520
Chassis Type:    Twin-Spar aluminium, Suzuki extrusions
Suspension    Front: Ohlins inverted-type telescopic fork
Rear: Ohlins with Suzuki link
Wheels:    Front and Rear: 17 inches
Brake System:    Brembo - Front: Twin discs, Carbon or Steel
Rear: Single disc, steel
Wheelbase:    1400 mm
Dry Weight:    approx 130 KG

Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the premier championship of motorcycle road racing currently divided into three distinct classes: 125cc, Moto 2 (250cc was replaced by the new Moto2, 600cc class in 2010), and MotoGP. Grand prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are neither available for general purchase nor can be legitimately ridden on public roads; this contrasts with the various production categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship, that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.


A Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) in 1949. The commercial rights are owned by Dorna Sports. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association (IRTA) and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association (MSMA). Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members. These 4 entities compose the Grand Prix Commission.

There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50cc, 80cc, 125cc, 250cc, 350cc, and 500cc solo machines have existed over time, and 350cc and 500cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes. By the 1970s, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and in 1983, even Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500. The 50cc class was replaced by an 80cc class, then the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish and Italian makes. The 350cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from World Championship events in the 1990s (see superside), reducing the field to 125s, 250s, and 500s.

I am about to build a model of Kevin Schwantz's 1993 Suzuki RGV500 Grand Prix bike. This is a highly detailed model conversion,known as a TransKit,  by a company called Studio 27 and uses the Tamiya Suzuki 1999 model  as a donor kit for some parts (wheels, engine etc) to put with the 'transkit'.

I have ordered the Tamiya 'donor kit' which should be here in about a week, until then I have to prepare the parts I do have to be ready for when it arrives.

Kevin Schwantz was my all time favourite Grand Prix rider and this is a model I have always wanted to do, and I will be updating this page with information and pictures as the model kit progresses so be sure to check back regularly.

The picture below shows the bodywork and front mudguard prior to be prepared for painting. The metal mudguard has since been glued together using a 2 part epoxy glue as normal plastic model glue will not hold the 2 metal pieces together. The other parts have also had any flash and rough edges removed and then washed clean before coating with surface primer.
READ MORE - The 1993 Suzuki RGV500 is from an era when Grand Prix machines were beautiful like few before or since

Honda Super Cub, (originally the Honda C100 or Honda 50)

Honda Super Cub, (originally the Honda C100 or Honda 50) also known as the Honda Cub, is a 49 cc 4-stroke underbone motorbike first manufactured by the Honda Motor Co. Ltd. in 1958. With more than 60 million sold worldwide, it is the best selling powered vehicle of all time. The Honda 50 is still produced today, 50 years after its inception. The variant Honda C90 with a larger engine displacement is also still produced. Today, the Honda Super Cub's primary market is in Asia. In the European Union, the Honda Cub has been replaced by the more powerful Honda Wave series.

The following refers to current 2007 model line: note: earlier models differ
Total length    1,800 mm (71 in)
Total width    660 mm (26 in)
Total height    1,010 mm (40 in)
Wheel base    1,175 mm (46.3 in)
Dry Weight    75 kg (170 lb)
Engine type    AA01E air-cooled 4-cycle SOHC single-cylinder
Displacement    49 cc (3.0 cu in)
Compression ratio    10.0:1
Bore x Stroke    39.0 x 41.4
Max Power output    4 PS (3.9 hp) at 7000 rpm
Max Torque    4.7 N·m (3.5 ft·lbf) at 4500 rpm
Max speed    80 km/h (50 mph)
Carburetor type    PB3L; Honda PGM-FI (Japanese market only)
Lubrication    Forced pressure wet sump combined use system
Fuel tank capacity    4 L (1.1 US gal)
Fuel Consumption    146 km/L (410 mpg-imp; 340 mpg-US) (30 km/h fixed area travelling test value)
Clutch    Wet multi-plate, operated both by centrifugal action and by gear-lever.
Transmission type    3-speed rotary type (4-speed some models)
Gear ratio    3.272, 1.764, 1.190
Reduction gear ratio    4.058/3.076
Starter    Kick (electric start optional on some models
Ignition    Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI Magneto) system (earlier models Flywheel contact-breaker points)
Front Suspension    Leading link (also known as Bottom link)
Rear Suspension    Swinging fork (also known as Swing arm)
Tire sizes (F/R)    2.25-17 33L / 2.50-17 38L
Front Brake    Drum, cable operated
Rear Brake    Drum, rod operated
Frame type    Low floor backbone pressed steel tube system

Model historyThe Honda Super Cub debuted in 1958, 10 years after the establishment of Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (The original Honda Cub had been a clip-on bicycle engine). It was decided to keep the name but add the prefix 'Super' for the all-new lightweight machine.

Honda had discovered how to increase the power and efficiency of 4-stroke engines by increasing engine speed (RPM), and the company set about breaking into a market sector totally dominated by the 2-stroke models of other manufacturers. The Honda Cub became the most successful motorcycle model in history, and made huge contributions to Honda's sales and profit. Honda used the slogan You meet the nicest people on a Honda as they broke into the English-speaking world, until then dominated by British motorcycles.

In 1964, two larger-engined versions were offered, the CM90 (OHV 87cc) and C65 (OHC 63cc) with slight alterations to frame and styling. It was during this time that the Cub gained popularity when Brian Wilson and Mike Love wrote the song "Little Honda," which was a reference to the Cub model. The song was released by The Hondells in 1964, followed by the original recording by The Beach Boys. Around 1967, the whole motorcycle was uprated, the 50cc engine going from pushrod 4.5bhp to SOHC 4.9bhp (a bored-down C65 engine)called the C50, and similarly the 90cc was redesigned with an OHC engine called the C90. Though the basic design of Cub remained unchanged, slightly new styling features and improvements were integrated, most visible being the enclosed front forks. In the 1980s, Honda fitted a new capacitor discharge ignition system (CDI) to replace the earlier contact points ignition, thereby helping to meet increasingly strict emission standards in markets such as the US. However, many experts on the Cub testify to the fact that Honda used the CDI system for better reliability and fuel efficiency, with the emissions improvements being an appealing by-product of these goals.

In the 1980s, a larger 100 cc GN-5 engine model was introduced especially for Asian markets. The newer 100 cc model branched off from the Honda Cub model design, with new features such as a telescopic front suspension to replace the older leading link suspension, and a 4-speed transmission to replace the older 3-speed transmission used in Honda Cubs. These changes were not incorporated into the Honda Cub lineup, not interfering with the timeless and dependable design of the Cub, but rather, were integrated into new models such as Honda Dream in Thailand and Honda EX5 in Malaysia. These bikes were never intended to compete or replace the Cub in the very strong Japanese domestic market, but were more suited for the lucrative Asian export market.

In the late 1990s, Honda introduced their newer NF series motorcycles, known as Honda Wave series (Honda Innova in some markets) which use steel tube frames, front disc brake and plastic cover sets in various displacement options: 100 cc, 110 cc and 125 cc. Though not Cubs, these bikes sold consistently well particularly in European countries, where the production of Honda Cub models had been previously discontinued. However, the production of Honda Cubs in Asia, Africa and South America still continues today even though the newer Honda Wave Series and other designs have been introduced alongside the Cub.

In 2007, Honda began installing their PGM-FI fuel injection system for the Honda Cubs in the Japanese market for even cleaner emission and better fuel efficiency

Today, internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, aircraft, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The four strokes refer to intake, compression, combustion (power), and exhaust strokes that occur during two crankshaft rotations per working cycle of the gasoline engine and diesel engine.

The cycle begins at top dead center (TDC), when the piston is farthest away from the axis of the crankshaft. On the intake or induction stroke of the piston, the piston descends from the top of the cylinder, reducing the pressure inside the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air is forced (by atmospheric or greater pressure) into the cylinder through the intake (inlet) port. The intake (inlet) valve (or valves) then close(s), and the compression stroke compresses the fuel–air mixture.

The air–fuel mixture is then ignited near the end of the compression stroke, usually by a spark plug (for a gasoline or Otto cycle engine) or by the heat and pressure of compression (for a Diesel cycle or compression ignition engine). The resulting pressure of burning gases pushes the piston through the power stroke. In the exhaust stroke, the piston pushes the products of combustion from the cylinder through an exhaust valve or valves. The largest and intermediate size diesel engines are usually two stroke diesel engines, requiring scavenging air pumps or blowers.

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally, fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to a movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades and by moving it over a distance, generate useful mechanical energy.

The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.

A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built, with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. Powered by an energy-dense fuel (which is very frequently petrol, a liquid derived from fossil fuels) the ICE delivers an excellent power-to-weight ratio with few safety or other disadvantages. While there have been and still are many stationary applications, the real strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile applications and they dominate as a power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats, from the smallest to the biggest. Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the market with battery powered devices.

Basic process

As their name implies, operation of a four stroke internal combustion engines have 4 basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine:
Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber
The mixtures are placed under pressure
The mixture is burnt, almost invariably a deflagration, although a few systems involve detonation. The hot mixture is expanded, pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work.
The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the atmosphere

Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines.


All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry).

The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Fossil fuels include diesel fuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas.

Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used.
Gasoline Ignition Process

Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery is recharged during operation using an electricity-generating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it to not more than 12.8 bar (1.28 MPa), then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.
Diesel Ignition Process

Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues, although they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs that pre-heat the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start conditions in cold weather. Most diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic control system that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.
READ MORE - Honda Super Cub, (originally the Honda C100 or Honda 50)

Sunday, December 27, 2009

BMW K1 is a motorcycle designed by BMW as a high-speed sport-tourists

BMW K1 is a motorcycle designed by BMW as a high-speed sport-tourists, which is designed to change the media and the buying public's mind motorcycle manufacturer BMW in just flat-twin tourers.

Based on the previously introduced BMW K100, the K1 is designed for comfortable high-speed Autobahn cruising speeds up to 150 mph (240 km / h). Radical aerodynamic design is the seven-piece fiber glass structures, creating a world-class leading barriers coefficient 0.38. Was mated with a rigid chassis, which includes one side Paralever swingarm, designed to stop the drive shaft induced field and dive under acceleration and heavy braking, this first use of the K-series bike.

Although expensive and well loved or hated, and with some of the early technology that works well is used or not - the cage created excess heat, while telelever create a 22 ft (6.7 m) to change the circle - creating short-term production results in a press Motorcycles and the public never had the same view another BMW motorcycle
Local youth Pope John Paul II wanted to have roadtested BMW K1, German motorcycle manufacturer's first "super sport bike" and the new flagship model.

But he was not able to attend the international press launch of K1 in Italy "for reasons of time", according to BMW officials, and I had a fun new ride in Frascati countryside around Rome. Pope has a summer home in Frascati but hilly areas may be more famous for its soft-sparkling white wine, also called Frascati, featuring more prominently on the agenda than it rose in the K1.

Launch of new products in the automotive industry known for long on entertainment and short on actual test. But after saying that the 80-mile circuit designed by BMW to take on all kinds of road conditions, revealing the weakness new bike and also strength.

Walking on to collect my test bike from the small regiment in Germany KIS parking is usually a line discipline I was amazed that might K1 was to share the experience of the Ford Sierra. Once introduced to the car that was not unusual hated by everyone. At that time loved by everyone. At the time of oddly K1l hated by almost everyone (except the official BMW).

Bike overall impression to be plump like many today the most modern bikes. But the individual is actually quite the corner as in more ancient mount; witness box in the tail section that double as storage bags and indicators mounts. Far more striking (official BMW) and terrible (the journalist) is surprising yellow suspension clashed with "Marrakesh" red or "Lagoon" blue bodywork and 18-inches tall decals spelling "K1".

This dramatic design will be less surprising if it had been introduced by Japanese manufacturers because of the reputation of the BMW paint job trivial. Bee-Em But close observers will notice that the BMW road leading to the yellow paint of a busy bee RI00GS ENDURO mother of pearl KI00RS Special Edition introduced last year. That they have succeeded even if they "un-BMW-like" color scheme.

Choosing travel carefully along the steep rock of the hilltop hotel, where the launch took place, I went wide in all corners tight zig-zag and too close to the edge on several occasions. The K1's wide handlebars manoevreabilrty for low speed but are hindered by a poor full lock. This is a bike that requires two-point turn when he turned in a normal-wide road. Perhaps aware of this BMW has placed a man at the bottom of the hill to wave rocked the traffic and let the bike pass. Once out of the hotel drive, however, it is possible to open the throttle and see if K1 truly is a "super sport bike".

Motorcycle manufacturers have voluntarily agreed to limit the bikes to be sold in Germany with 100 horsepower. Being meticulous German manufacturer BMW has gone one stage further and also restrict bicycles for export to the same limit. This is also a bit uncomfortable as a motorcycle does not mean to be taken out of the assembly line and changed. Until today, this policy has been purely academic because there are no bike BMW can produce more than l00hp.

The K1, the first BMW with four valves per cylinder, changes all that. More valves means that the cylinder head can be made smaller four small circle takes less space than the big two that helps to improve the compression ratio. The K1 is the compression ratio is much higher than the K-series 11.0: 1 compared to 10.2:1. The fuel also burns more evenly by valve four-cylinder increase still further. So BMW's first 16-valve engine capable of producing more than l00hp, BMW officials say. But they made the decision to limit the overseas and at home because a motorbike industry "was being watched by the politicians"

However, K100 is still a cruiser / tourer designs on the bias, and BMW wanted a marketing-oriented sports attract tourists to a more youth-oriented market perceptions, and compete with Japanese manufacturers. BMW is committed to producing charged 100 bhp (75 kW) limit for motorcycles sold in Germany, so decided that in order to overcome the problem needed to turn to aerodynamics to solve the problem.

In 1984 at the Cologne Motorcycle Show, BMW creating aerodynamic design "Racer" mockup, based on the standard K100 chassis.

Cologne in 1988 showed that K1 was used as the production of large and all that encompasses two pieces of the front mud guard is closely mated with a seven-piece main prize, which includes two small panniers. The resulting drag coefficient is 0.34 with a prone rider, the lowest of all motorcycle production in 1988.

Adding to the "different from traditional BMW" nature of the bike, the color scheme of red or blue with yellow graphics and highlights the courage, and because it was seen as very different from the normal BMW, weird.

 The K1 is different from the K100 in terms of technique, which is designed for high speed and therefore with a lot of good components replaced or upgraded.

Maintaining a K100 engine dimensions 67 mm × 70 mm (2.6 in × 2.8 in), the BMW K1 first 16-valve engine, with four valves per head, the camshafts acting directly on bucket tappets. Other improvements included K100 for a higher compression pistons, lighter conrods and 1.3 kg (2.9 lb) lighter crankshaft. This combined with the digital Motronic engine management system produces 10 hp (7.5 kW) gain on the K100, producing 100 hp (75 kW) on the crankshaft at 8000 rpm and torque increases from · 74 lb ft (100 N · m) versus K100's £ 64 · ft (87 N · m).

Steel pipe casing stronger mounted on a wide 17-inch (430 mm) wheels FPS, with a low profile radial tires. The rear suspension is a Bilstein shock absorbers are working on one side Paralever swingarm, which encourages wheelbase out to 1565 mm (61.6 in). In the front there are twin 41.7 mm (1.64 in) Marzocchi fork. Brakes Brembo four-pot more than two-pot on the K100, with a pair of 305 mm (12.0 in) drilled discs. Anti-lock braking system optional in all markets except North America, where it was standard.
READ MORE - BMW K1 is a motorcycle designed by BMW as a high-speed sport-tourists

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

BMW K1200GT is a sport-bike touring made by BMW. K1200GT second generation, introduced in 2006, using essentially the same inline-4 engine as the BMW K1200S sportbike

BMW K1200GT is a sport-bike touring made by BMW. K1200GT second generation, introduced in 2006, using essentially the same inline-4 engine as the BMW K1200S sportbike, who holds the world speed record in 2005 for the class at 173.57 mph (279.33 km / h), and K1200R. The new model is lighter and stronger than the first generation K1200GT, which was introduced in the standard include 2003.Fitur adjusted seat, handlebars, integral ABS, panniers and electronically adjustable screen. Options available include: electronic suspension adjustment (ESA), xenon lights, on board computer including oil level warning, automatic stability control (ASC), hot seat, heated hand grips, tire pressure monitoring (TPM), cruise control and alarm anti theft in end of 2008, K1300GT replaced by K1200GT larger displacement, which displays a large 136 cc engine produces 175 bhp (130 kW) and 103 lb · ft (140 N · m) of torque.

New bike also features improved optional ESA II electronic suspension adjustment, conventional single indicator switch and hidden bar.Inline crash-four engine or a straight-four engine four-cylinder internal combustion engine with four cylinders mounted in a straight line or plane along the cylinder block . Single-cylinder banks can be oriented either in vertical or inclined plane with all pistons driving a common crankshaft. Which tends, sometimes called side-four. In the chart specifications or when an acronym is used, inline-four engine I4.K listed as 1200 GT is the successor to the existing K 1200 GT and is based on an innovative engine technology K 1200 K 1200 S and R. second-generation GT offers high-class driving dynamics, the key feature here is the fact that the engine especially designed for high torque. This makes for the highest performance rate and maximum agility: performance sports touring bike would be more than kW/150 bhp 110.

Similarly, chassis components leave anything you want. K 1200 GT has the same technical basis as K 1200 S and offers customers the control Duolever front wheels, for rear wheel suspension Paralever control and power adjustable buffer (ESA) as an optional extra. GT deserves the name "Gran Turismo" is unlike any other. The standard features include an adjustable seat and handlebar. Windshield can be adjusted electronically according to individual preferences. Other equipment features a pannier system and BMW Motorrad Integral ABS in the integral version. BMW Motorrad also offers tailor-made variety of special equipment and a new K aksesoris.1200 GT offers perfect wind and weather protection and an optimal driving machine for touring and long distance. But it was surprisingly small and very elegant in-four
appearance. Inline layout is a simple design in perfect primary balance, and confer a degree of mechanical simplicity that made him popular for economy. But car, apart from simplicity, it suffers the imbalance that causes secondary vibrations small in the smaller engines. This vibration got worse as the size and engine power increased, so the more powerful engine used in larger cars are generally more complex designs with more than four cylinder. Displacement inline engine configuration is most common in the car with a displacement up to 2 , 4 liters. Ordinary "practical" limit displacement inline-four engine in a car is about 2.7 liters. However, Porsche uses 3.0-liter four in the 944 S2 and the 968 sports car, and Rolls Royce produced a 4-cylinder 2838cc engine with basic dimensions of 3.5 inch diameter cylinder and 4.5-inch stroke (Rolls Royce B40).

Classic and Antique vehicles tend to have a larger displacement to develop horsepower and torque. Model A Ford was built with 3.3-liter inline four-cylinder
machine. Four diesel engine, which is lower than the revving gasoline engines, often exceeding 3.0 liters. Mitsubishi still use 3.2-liter four-cylinder turbodiesel in the Pajero (called Shogun or Montero in certain markets), and Tata Motors employs 3.0-liter four-cylinder diesel in the Sumo Spacio and Victa.Toyota B series diesel engines vary in the displacement 3.0 -- 4.1 liters. Largest machine in the circuit used in the Mega Cruiser.

Larger four-cylinder engines used in industrial applications, such as small trucks and tractors, are often found with a displacement up to about 4.6 liters. Diesel engine for quiet, marine and locomotive use (which run at low speed) are made in sizes much
big. Displacement can also be very small, such as those found in cars sold in the Japanese kei, such as Subaru EN series; engine started out in 550 cc and now with 660 cc, with variable valve timing, DOHC engine and cause superchargers that produces 65 PS (48 kW; 64 bhp).

BMW has been busy this year! They have also just announced the K 1200 GT, sport-touring version of the K 1200 S super-sport bike. The motorcycle has a greater reward and a small saddle bag and looks like a fun trip. More information will be posted if
available.UPDATE: July 2007 - BMW K 1200 GT has been named as one of the ten motorcycles for 2006 by the editor of Cycle World magazine. On 31 Annual Cycle World Ten Best Bikes awards dinner held this month, the BMW K 1200 GT received the magazine award for Best Sport-Touring Bike, the category for motorcycles that are designed to combine the best elements of sport riding and touring, which includes distance away for a few days. "We are honored to have gained another place in Cycle World's coveted top ten list," commented Arturo Pineiro, Vice President, BMW Motorrad USA. "This is the 13th year BMW has been selected for the ten awards."

Features and Technical Highlights Introducing the new K 1200 GT, BMW Motorrad strengthen worldwide market leadership in the segment of the tour and get a greater role in leading the market.

Following the success of a former model with the same name, the new K 1200 GT opens new dimensions in riding dynamics and quality of long-distance, once again proving the expertise and outstanding competence of white-blue marque.

A special feature K 1200 GT is that this new machine does not require the slightest compromise, but to overcome the contradiction between superior sportiness and high standards of new tur. BMW top-end motorcycle combines maximum agility and dynamic performance with an ideal package for long trips and pleasant travel. To achieve this goal, the development engineers at BMW Motorrad have carried out during the trendsetting running gear and engine technology, the former K 1200 S and K 1200 R straight into this new sport tourists.

Guidance innovative wheel system - Duolever BMW in front and the EVO-Paralever at the rear - make a very significant contribution to the extraordinary and highly dynamic ride characteristics GT. Drive K 1200 power comes from cutting-edge straight-four engine in transverse arrangement , developing maximum output in the GT version of 152 hp (112 kW) and thus currently setting the benchmark in the segment of the tour.

No single competitor in the market offers the same standard of dynamic performance as the new K 1200 GT. Comparison with previous model clearly proves a big step taken by BMW Motorrad with this new engine: K 1200 GT is more powerful (maximum output up to 17%), develops more torque (up to 11%), offers a higher theoretical mileage (up to 17%), and at the same time is lighter (down by 6%), but still capable of carrying higher loads (up to 19%).

It goes without saying that the new GT has all the features you can really expect from BMW touring machine. In particular, it is only suitable for riding with a passenger and covering long distances in comfort and style. Maximum ride comfort is ensured by excellent protection from wind and weather, electric adjustable windscreen, perfect ergonomic design of the driver seat thanks to flexible height adjustment seat and handlebar itself, as well as side cases featured as standar.
Last but certainly not least , K 1200 GT also meets the greatest demands in terms of environmental compatibility and safety. Apart from a fully controlled three-way catalytic converter, high-performance EVO brake system with semi-integral ABS anti-lock brakes and electronic immobiliser between natural features offered by new and sophisticated tourists as standard equipment.

Given all the quality and consistency through-and-through, the new K 1200 GT is able to meet even higher standards of comfort is very important to the passionate touring rider, at the same time making exercise heart dyed-in - the-wool motorcycle enthusiasts really ticking. The "GT" abbreviation for Gran Turismo, therefore, describes this BMW sports tourists even more precise than sebelumnya.K new 1200 GT is available in three standard colors will be combined with two contrasting colors in the blankets and chairs, so interpret the character Gran Turismo unique in many ways.

As usual, BMW Motorrad also offers a variety of additional options and special equipment tailored to the new machine and leave what you want. Apart from comfort-oriented features to travel in style, customers have a choice, to mention a few examples, Electronic Suspension Adjustment (ESA), on-board computer, xenon headlights, cruise control, or the BMW Navigator.

The most important feature the new K 1200 GT for short:
- Front-mounted straight-four power unit, cylinder inclined to the angle 55 °
- 1.157 cc, 112 kW/152 hp pada 9.500 rpm, 130 Nm/96 lb-ft) at 7.750 rpm
- Duolever suspensi in front
- Paralever suspensi in the back
- BMW Motorrad Integral ABS, semi-versi integral
- On-board elektronik dengan technology CAN-bus
- Elektronik immobiliser
- Brake pad memakai indikator
- Seat dan setang adjusted
- Electronic Suspension Adjustment (ESA, opsional)
- Aerodynamically optimized full prize
- Electricity adjusted windshield

 The most important technical differences increase new K 1200 GT against his predecessors:

  • Increase the maximum power (+ 17%) 
  • High maximum torque (+ 11%)
  • Reduction in unladen weight (- 6%)
  • High load (+ 19%)
  • Tank larger (+ 17%) 
  • A longer cruising range of theoretical (+ 17%)
Inline-four engine is much more subtle than one, two, and three-cylinder engine, and this has resulted in it became the economic engine of choice for most cars, although it can be found in several sports car, too. However, inline-four is not a balanced configuration Absolutely. Ashot even-inline-four engines in the primary balance as a piston moving in pairs, and one pair of pistons is always moving up at the same time as the other pair moves downward. However, the acceleration and deceleration larger piston at the top of the rotation of the crankshaft rather than at the bottom, because the rods that connect unlimited long. As a result, two pistons are always accelerate faster in one direction, while the other two are accelerated more slowly in another direction, which leads to secondary dynamic imbalance which causes fluctuating vibration at twice crankshaft speed. This imbalance is tolerable in a small, low displacement, low power configurations, but the vibrations get worse with the increasing size and power.

The reason the piston speed is higher at 180 ° rotation from mid-stroke through the top-dead-center, and back to the middle-stroke, is that the small contribution of the piston's up / down movement of the connecting rod angle changes from here have the same direction with the contribution of the piston's up / down movement of the up / down movement of crank pin. In contrast, during the 180 ° rotation from mid-stroke through bottom-dead-center and back to the middle-stroke piston's small contribution of up / down movement of the rod that connects the change of angle has the opposite direction of the major contributions to the piston's up / down movement of the / down movement of the crank pin.most  Inline-four engines below 2.0 liters in displacement rely on the damping effect of their engine mounts to reduce vibration to an acceptable level. In the 2.0-liter, most modern inline-four engine now uses a balance shaft to eliminate second-order harmonic vibration. In a system that was discovered by Dr. Frederick W. Lanchester in 1911, and popularized by Mitsubishi Motors in the 1970s, an inline-four engine using two-axis balance, spun counterclockwise direction twice crankshaft speed, to compensate for differences in piston speed. However, in the past, there much larger sample inline-fours without balance shafts, such as the Citroën DS 23 2347 cc engine that is derived from the Traction Avant engine, in 1948 Austin 2660 cc engine used in the Austin-Healey 100 and the Austin Atlantic, flathead engine 3.3 liter used in the Ford Model A (1927), and 2.5 liter GM Iron Duke engine used in a number of American cars and trucks. Soviet / Russian Volga GAZ UAZ cars and SUVs, vans and trucks that use large-bore aluminum inline-four engine (2.5 or newer 2.9-liter) without balance shafts in the 1950s-1990s.

These machines are generally the result of a long process of gradual evolution and their strength remains low compared with their capacity. However, the army increased with the square of the speed of the engine-ie, twice the rate of vibration makes four times worse, so the modern high-speed inline-fours have more need to use a balance shaft to offset
vibration. Four cylinder also has problems in that the strength of the smooth blows from the piston do not overlap. With four cylinders and four cycles to complete, each piston to complete its power stroke and came to a complete stop before the next piston can start a new power stroke, so that the gap between each power stroke and a pulsed power delivery. In engines with more cylinders, the power stroke overlap, which gives them the power delivery smoother and less vibration than four can be achieved. As a result, six and eight cylinders are generally used in more expensive luxury cars.

The smallest production car inline-four engine-powered 1961 Mazda Carol P360 kei car. Displacing only 358 cc, OHV Mazda is a conventional but tiny pushrod engines. Honda produced, 1963-1967, a 356 cc inline-four engines for the T360 truck. Inline-four engine is built into the 250 cc, for example in the Honda CBR250.

Most inline-four engine, however, has more than 0.7 liters in displacement. Practical upper limits could be placed in the range of 2.5 liters for the production cars contemporary. Larger engine (up to 4.5 liters) had been seen in racing and light trucks in use, mainly using diesel fuel (example is the Mercedes-Benz MBE 904). The use of balance shafts allowed Porsche to use a 3.0 liter (2990 cc) inline-four engines on the first road car in the 944 S2 (1989-1991), but the greatest of modern non-diesel is a plain 3.2-liter (3188 cc) 195 in the year 1961 this Tempest. When Pontiac, one of the largest inline-four engine is a 2.89-liter 421 engine UMZ Series UMZ (Russian machine).

In the early 20th century, larger engine, both on the street cars and sports cars. Because there is no displacement limit rules, producers take the liberty to increase the size of the engine. In order to achieve power over 100 horsepower (75 kW), most engine builders only increased displacement, which can sometimes reach more than 10.0 liters. One of the largest inline-fours from the time that De Dietrich 17,000 cc engine. Cubic with a capacity of more than two times the size of 500 CID Cadillac's 8.2 liter V8 engine, which is regarded as the greatest engine of the type in the 1970s. This machine is running at very low rpm, often less than the maximum 1500 rpm, and has a certain output of about 10 hp / L. U.S., both agricultural and industrial tractors major industries rely on four-cylinder power units until the early 1960s, when the six-cylinder into good design. International Harvester built a large 5.7 liter (350 CID) four cylinder for the WD-9 tractor series.
READ MORE - BMW K1200GT is a sport-bike touring made by BMW. K1200GT second generation, introduced in 2006, using essentially the same inline-4 engine as the BMW K1200S sportbike